Pigmentation is a general term that means that an area of the skin, for some reason, becomes darker / lighter than surrounding skin, that is, color changes in the skin. Pigmentations can be caused by sun damage, hormonal drugs that affect the body's hormone levels, birth control pills, pregnancy, age and more. There is also research that suggests that stress can promote pigmentation.
Hyperpigmentation means that an area of the skin becomes darker because the color pigment melanin accumulates (increased melanin production).
Melasma or Chloasma is a harmless condition in the form of hyperpigmentation on the face, with spread to mainly eyebrows, temples, cheekbones and chin. The pigmentation appears more pronounced during tanning.
Lentigo solaris are brown pigment spots on the skin. They are also called sunspots or sometimes age spots. Most often, the spots are formed on the top of the hands and on the face.
You can reduce the risk of pigmentation by using sunscreen when sunbathing or staying in the sun for a long time. Daily application of sunscreen protects against the UV rays and counteracts melanin formation at the cellular level.